The greatest hindrance for transdermal drug delivery TDD is the barrier property of skin, especially the stratum corneum SC. Various methodologies have been investigated and developed to enhance the penetration of drugs through the skin. Among them, the most popular approach is the application of penetration enhancers PEs , including natural terpenes, a very safe and effective class of PEs. The mechanism of their action, the factors affecting their penetration enhancement effect, as well as their possible skin toxicity were discussed. Terpenes abundant in nature have great potential in the development of PEs.
Percutaneous permeation enhancement by terpenes: mechanistic view
Natural Terpenes as Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Drug Delivery
From to she was responsible for the preparation of compounded drugs in pharmacies of the state pharmaceutical company Apoteka "Beograd" in Belgrade, and in she was appointed Director of the Production Department in the same company. She has published in a variety of international journals. Account Options Sign in. Top charts. New arrivals. Maibach Apr This truly comprehensive reference, in a mini-series format with five volumes, offers a detailed description of both well-known and recently introduced methods for percutaneous penetration enhancement.
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Ethosomes are phospholipid nanovesicles used for dermal and transdermal delivery of molecules. The mechanism of permeation enhancement is attributed to the overall properties of the system. Because of their unique structure, ethosomes are able to efficiently encapsulate and deliver into the skin highly lipophilic molecules such as testosterone , cannabinoids and ibuprofen , as well as hydrophilic drugs such as clindamycin phosphate , buspirone hydrochloride. They have been studied for the transdermal and intradermal delivery of peptides , steroids , antibiotics , prostaglandins , antivirals and anti-pyretics.